探究智慧建築的重大意涵，乃是透過導入資通訊系統，使空間具備主動感知之智慧化功能，以實現安全健康、便利舒適、節能永續等目的；但大家在追逐智慧機能之餘，亦需有所體悟，若無扎實的設施維護機制作為後盾，難保這些功能不會出亂子。 很多人也許沒有意識到，環顧智慧建築，物業管理或設施管理肯定是重要環節；只因不論智慧化功能如何犀利，倘若箇中任一元件因故失靈，又沒能即時修復的話，整套機制便可能趨於停擺。 有業者說得好，要把智慧建築做得成功，先決條件即是運用「同一套」劇本解釋所有真相！為何特別強調為同一套？主因在於，建築物從出生到滅亡的生命週期，不管是規劃設計、營建施工，直到完工之後的日常使用、更新修繕，整條價值鏈十分冗長，如果源頭的規劃設計者、營建施工者，都習慣採用自己的劇本或語言，而未能將龐雜資訊有效傳承給業主及物業管理單位，即等同於「真相不明」，必然會讓後續的設施管理，陷入進退失據的窘局。 一盞燈都修不好 何來智慧？ 某飯店為了增加住房率，早在多年前大手筆引進諸多資通訊設備，現今無論在大廳、餐廳、客房、會議廳或宴會廳，隨處可見貼心便利之智慧化功能，也如願贏得顧客好評。 只不過，有一天其會議廳出借予某研討會，就在會議過程中，位於舞台上方的水晶燈因不明緣故爆裂，只見瞬間大量碎片落下，所幸僅出現在場聽眾陣陣驚呼，並無造成人員受傷；該座水晶燈美侖美奐、氣勢恢宏，堪稱鎮廳之寶，因此總務主管務必儘速將之修復，否則定將嚴重影響日後場地租借業務，致令飯店蒙受可觀損失。 然而此座水晶燈架設迄今已有多年光景，在這幾年內，相關總務人員早已換過不計其數，原始資料也未經過有效彙整，只見總務主管焦急地翻遍堆積如山的書面資料、單據或手冊，花了足足一個禮拜時間，也沒能找出水晶燈的履歷資訊(含維護廠商聯絡資料、維修記錄、燈具型錄…等等)，惹得頂頭上司大發雷霆，於是下達最後通牒，直言這盞燈再過3天若未回復正常運作，總務主管就會面臨降職、減薪之嚴厲處分。 話說回來，這名總務主管真有嚴重疏失？也許有，只因他與前一手交接並不確實，但追根究柢，該飯店只顧著運用資通訊系統，為其增添智慧化表象，卻疏於從根本做起，藉由單一系統涵蓋建築物從誕生到維運的種種真相，這才是癥結所在。 藉由6D視野 透析建築物生命週期履歷那麼，應當如何化解上述僵局？足以橫跨長度、寬度、高度、時間、成本、設施等6D維度，並以建築物生命週期履歷資訊為運作主軸的「建築資訊模型(Building Information Modeling；BIM)」，顯然才是斧底抽薪的解法。 BIM是什麼？說穿了，就是將建築結構、機電、空調、環控…等大大小小的元件通通加以整合，所呈現出來的最終介面，透過此一介面，舉凡施工圖、竣工圖、SOP、型錄、保養手冊，所有資料都會隨時序的演進而不斷累積，便於管理者一目瞭然，隨時掌握各項設施的最新資訊。 沿用上例，當總務主任發現B2第二會議廳的水晶燈發生故障，不論人在何處，只要拿出手持裝置、開啟BIM資料，即可透過飯店建築物的3D幾何模型逐層鑽取，最終定位到該會議廳內的水晶燈，朝著水晶燈的圖示按下右鍵，即可鉅細靡遺地呈現出該組燈具的型號、內部零件、維修記錄、維護廠商聯絡資訊，旋即在第一時間妥善處理；在此前提下，不論前任總務主管究竟有沒有針對該水晶燈的細部資料予以交接，只要透過BIM模型的代代傳承，一切都會在當下負責人的掌握之中。 不可諱言，建築物內部設備絕對不僅止於照明裝置，其餘不管是空氣調節、通風設備、火警自動報警系統、門禁設備、影像錄影設備、防盜保全、對講、廣播…等種種設施，也同樣都與智慧建築主體緊緊繫結，任一項目只要發生故障，均將對整個智慧佈局構成莫大影響，當然全都需要利用最短時間使之恢復正常；此時只要一BIM在手，管理者也就不致茫無頭緒了。
The aim of exploring smart building is to equip spaces with active sensing intelligence features, in order to achieve safe and healthy, convenient and comfortable, energy sustainability and other purposes; But while everyone are in the pursuit of intellectual function, we also need some sort of understanding, there is no guarantee these features will go wrong without a solid facility maintenance mechanism as a backup. Many people may not realize that smart construction, property management or facilities management are certainly the important part because no matter how sharp are the intelligence features, if the failure occur on any component for whatever reason, and it was not repaired immediately, the entire system may tend to break down. Some insiders say it well, “if you want smart building successful, the prerequisite is that the use of “the same set of” script to explain all the truth!” Why do they emphasis on the “same set” particularly? The main reason is that the building’s life from birth to death cycle, regardless of planning and design, construction or completion, daily use, updates, repairs – the whole value chain is very long, if the planners and designers, constructor are all accustomed to using their own script or language, and made complex information unable to be passed on to the owners and property management unit effectively, which will make it equivalent to an “Unknown Truth”. It must make the facilities management fall into a harsh dilemma of going forward or backward. How would you go smart if you can’t even fix a lamp? Years ago, a hotel tried to increase its occupancy rate, it bought many information and communication equipment and implemented them in the lobby, restaurant, guest rooms, meeting rooms or banquet halls, everywhere intimate to introduce intelligence features, and also to win customers’ praise. One day, while the conference hall was rented to a corporate meeting. The crystal lamp located above the stage suddenly exploded due to unknown reasons with debris fell off from the ceiling. Fortunately no injury was caused, audience were only frightened by the incident. That crystal lamb was originally fantastic, magnificent, and could be called the soul of the conference hall, so the General Manager must got it repaired as soon as possible, otherwise it will seriously affect the venue rental business in the future, which would result a considerable losses to the hotel. However, this crystal lamp has been setup for a long time, in these years, the General Manager had changed countless times. The raw data has not been collected and arranged effectively, the General Manager could only rummaged through piles of competent written information and documents or manuals anxiously and spent a week time, and still not able to find biographical information about crystal lamps (including maintenance vendor contact information, maintenance records, lamps catalog … etc), prompting furious boss’s rage and was issued an ultimatum that if the lamp is not fixed for another three days, the General Manager will face demotion, salary reduction as punishment. Anyway, has the General Manager made serious negligence? Perhaps, because he did not handover from the former General Manager well. But the fundamental problem was that the hotel was only paying attention on the use of information and communication systems for intelligent appearance, and had neglected the building information from the building’s birth to its operation. Dialyze building life history with 6D Vision.So, how to resolve the impasse? BIM (Business Information Model), the technology of 6 dimensions of length, width, height, time, cost, facilities, the technology that is operated with biographical information on the life cycle of the building, is apparently the appropriate solution. What is BIM? To put it bluntly, is to integrate building structure, electrical, air-conditioning, environmental control, etc and presented in a single interface. An interface which covered the construction plans, as-built drawing, SOP, catalogs, maintenance manuals – all data are readily sequence evolution and continue to accumulate, which make it easy to manage at a glance and keep abreast of the latest information on the facilities. To follow case mentioned above, when the General Manager found that the crystal lamp in the conference hall of level B2 fails, no matter where he is, with a handheld device with BIM data opened, he can locate the crystal lamp through the hotel building’s 3D geometric model. Then with a few clicks, he should be able to view the model, the internal parts, maintenance records, maintenance vendor contact information in details and be able to have it under control immediately; Under this premise, regardless of whether the former General Manager had handover the information about that crystal lamp, the BIM model will carry from generation to generation, which make everything hands-on. Undeniably, building device definitely does limited to lighting fixtures, others like air-conditioning, ventilation equipment, fire alarm systems, access control equipment, video recording equipment, anti-theft security, intercom, radio … and various other facilities, too, are tightly bound to the core of smart building. A single item’s failuremay constitute a great impact on the entire layout. And of course, these must be fixed with as least time as possible. To achieve this, BIM should be by the hand of facility managers.